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AFA, ALK, AON, AOR, AOA,ARM ,Argentine peso moneda nacional ARL
ARL Argentine peso ley ARP
ARP Peso argentino ARA
ARA Argentine austral ARS
AZM 031 Azerbaijani manat AZN
BEC 993 Belgian Franc (convertible)
BEL 992 Belgian Franc (financial)
BGJ Bulgarian lev A/52 BGK
BGK Bulgarian lev A/62 BGL
BGL 100 Bulgarian lev A/99 BGN
BOP Bolivian peso BOB
BRB Brazilian cruzeiro BRLBRC Brazilian cruzado BRL
CFP Change Franc Pacifique XFP
CNX Chinese People's Bank dollar CNY
CSJ Czechoslovak koruna A/53 CSK
CSK 200 Czechoslovak koruna CZK and SKK
DDM 278 East German Mark of the GDR (East Germany) DEM
ECS 218 Ecuador sucre USD
ECV 983 Ecuador Unidad de Valor Constante (Funds code) (discontinued)
EQE Equatorial Guinean ekwele XAF
ESA 996 Spanish peseta (account A) ESP
ESB 995 Spanish peseta (account B) ESP
GNE Guinean syli XOF
GWP 624 Guinea peso XOF
ILP Israeli lira ILR
ILR Israeli old sheqel ILS
ISJ Icelandic old krona ISK
LAJ Lao kip - Pol Pot LAK
MAF Mali franc XOF
MGF 450 Malagasy franc MGA
MKN Macedonian denar A/93 MKD
MVQ Maldive rupee MVR
MXP Mexican peso MXN
MZM 508 Metical MZN
PEH Peruvian sol PEI
PEI Peruvian inti PEN
PLZ 616 Polish zloty A/94 PLN
ROK Romanian leu A/52 ROL
ROL 642 Romanian leu A/05 RON
RUR 810 Russian ruble RUB
SRG 740 Suriname guilder SRD
SUR Soviet Union ruble RUB
SVC 222 Salvadoran colo'n USD
TJR 762 Tajikistan ruble TJS
TPE 626 Portuguese Timorese escudo IDR
TRL 792 Turkish lira A/05 TRY
UAK 804 Ukrainian karbovanets UAH
UGW Ugandan old shilling UGX
UYN Uruguay old peso UYU
VNC Vietnamese old dong VND
YDD 720 South Yemeni dinar YER
YUD New Yugoslav Dinar CSD
YUM 891 Yugoslav dinar CSD
ZAL 991 South African financial rand (Funds code) (discontinued)
ZRN 180 New Zaire CDF
ZRZ Zaire ZRN
ZWC
Abkhazia Georgian lari ? GEL Tetri 100
Russian ruble ?. RUB Kopek 100
Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan Afghan afghani ? AFN Pul 100
Flag of Albania Albania Albanian lek L ALL Qintar 100
Flag of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia Cypriot pound £ CYP Cent [D] 100
Alderney Alderney pound [A] £ None Penny 100
Guernsey pound £ None Penny 100
Flag of Algeria Algeria Algerian dinar ?.? DZD Centime 100
Flag of Andorra Andorra Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Angola Angola Angolan kwanza Kz AOA centimo 100
Flag of Anguilla Anguilla East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Argentina Argentina Argentine peso $ ARS Centavo 100
Flag of Armenia Armenia Armenian dram ??. AMD Luma 100
Flag of Aruba Aruba Aruban florin ƒ AWG Cent 100
Flag of United Kingdom Ascension Island Ascension pound [A] £ None Penny 100
Saint Helenian pound £ SHP Penny 100
Flag of Australia Australia Australian dollar $ AUD Cent 100
Flag of Austria Austria Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Azerbaijani manat AZN Q?pik 100
Flag of The Bahamas Bahamas, The Bahamian dollar $ BSD Cent 100
Flag of Bahrain Bahrain Bahraini dinar ?.? BHD Fils 1,000
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladeshi taka ? BDT Paisa 100
Flag of Barbados Barbados Barbadian dollar $ BBD Cent 100
Flag of Belarus Belarus Belarusian ruble Br BYR Kapyeyka 100
Flag of Belgium Belgium Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Belize Belize Belize dollar $ BZD Cent 100
Flag of Benin Benin West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Bermuda Bermuda Bermuda dollar $ BMD Cent 100
Flag of Bhutan Bhutan Bhutanese ngultrum BTN Chertrum 100
Indian rupee Rs INR Paisa 100
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia Bolivian boliviano Bs. BOB Centavo 100
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark KM or ?? BAM Fening 100
Flag of Botswana Botswana Botswana pula P BWP Thebe 100
Flag of Brazil Brazil Brazilian real R$ BRL Centavo 100
Flag of British Indian Ocean Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British pound (de jure) £ GBP Penny 100
United States dollar (de facto) $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Brunei Brunei Brunei dollar $ BND Sen 100
Singapore dollar $ SGD Cent 100
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria Bulgarian lev ?? BGN Stotinka 100
Flag of Burkina Faso Burkina Faso West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Burundi Burundi Burundian franc Fr BIF Centime 100
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia Cambodian riel ? KHR Sen 100
Flag of Cameroon Cameroon Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of Canada Canada Canadian dollar $ CAD Cent 100
Flag of Cape Verde Cape Verde Cape Verdean escudo $ or Esc CVE Centavo 100
Flag of Cayman Islands Cayman Islands Cayman Islands dollar $ KYD Cent 100
Flag of Central African Republic Central African Republic Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of Chad Chad Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of Chile Chile Chilean peso $ CLP Centavo 100
Flag of People's Republic of China China, People’s Republic of Chinese renminbi ¥ CNY Jiao [E] 10
Flag of Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos (Keeling) Islands Australian dollar $ AUD Cent 100
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
Flag of Colombia Colombia Colombian peso $ COP Centavo 100
Flag of Comoros Comoros Comorian franc Fr KMF Centime 100
Flag of Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congolese franc Fr CDF Centime 100
Flag of Republic of the Congo Congo, Republic of the Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of Cook Islands Cook Islands New Zealand dollar $ NZD Cent 100
Cook Islands dollar $ None Cent 100
Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica Costa Rican colo'n ? CRC Ce'ntimo 100
Flag of Co^te d'Ivoire Co^te d’Ivoire West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Croatia Croatia Croatian kuna kn HRK Lipa 100
Flag of Cuba Cuba Cuban convertible peso $ CUC Centavo 100
Cuban peso $ CUP Centavo 100
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus Cypriot pound £ CYP Cent [D] 100
Flag of Czech Republic Czech Republic Czech koruna Kc( CZK Hale'r( 100
Flag of Denmark Denmark Danish krone kr DKK ?re 100
Flag of Djibouti Djibouti Djiboutian franc Fr DJF Centime 100
Flag of Dominica Dominica East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Dominican peso $ DOP Centavo 100
Flag of East Timor East Timor United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
None None None Centavo None
Flag of Ecuador Ecuador United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
None None None Centavo None
Flag of Egypt Egypt Egyptian pound £ or ?.? EGP Piastre [F] 100
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador Salvadoran colo'n ? SVC Centavo 100
United States Dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of Eritrea Eritrea Eritrean nakfa ERN Cent 100
Flag of Estonia Estonia Estonian kroon KR EEK Sent 100
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia Ethiopian birr ETB Santim 100
Flag of Falkland Islands Falkland Islands Falkland pound £ FKP Penny 100
Flag of Faroe Islands Faroe Islands Danish krone kr DKK ?re 100
Faroese kro'na kr None Oyra 100
Flag of Fiji Fiji Fijian dollar $ FJD Cent 100
Flag of Finland Finland Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of France France Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of French Polynesia French Polynesia CFP franc Fr XPF Centime 100
Flag of Gabon Gabon Central African CFA franc Fr XAF Centime 100
Flag of The Gambia Gambia, The Gambian dalasi D GMD Butut 100
Flag of Georgia (country) Georgia Georgian lari ? GEL Tetri 100
Flag of Germany Germany Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Ghana Ghana Ghanaian cedi ? GHC Pesewa 100
Flag of Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltar pound £ GIP Penny 100
Flag of Greece Greece Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Grenada Grenada East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala Guatemalan quetzal Q GTQ Centavo 100
Flag of Guernsey Guernsey Guernsey pound £ None Penny 100
Flag of Guinea Guinea Guinean franc Fr GNF Centime 100
Flag of Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Guyana Guyana Guyanese dollar $ GYD Cent 100
Flag of Haiti Haiti Haitian gourde G HTG Centime 100
Flag of Honduras Honduras Honduran lempira L HNL Centavo 100
Flag of Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong dollar $ HKD Ho [G] 10
Flag of Hungary Hungary Hungarian forint Ft HUF Fille'r 100
Flag of Iceland Iceland Icelandic kro'na kr ISK Eyrir 100
Flag of India India Indian rupee Rs INR Paisa 100
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia Indonesian rupiah Rp IDR Sen 100
Flag of Iran Iran Iranian rial ? IRR Dinar 100
Flag of Iraq Iraq Iraqi dinar ?.? IQD Fils 1,000
Flag of Republic of Ireland Ireland Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Isle of Man Isle of Man Isle of Man pound £ None Penny 100
Flag of Israel Israel Israeli new sheqel ? ILS New agora 100
Flag of Italy Italy Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica Jamaican dollar $ JMD Cent 100
Flag of Japan Japan Japanese yen ¥ JPY Sen [H] 100
Flag of Jersey Jersey Jersey pound £ None Penny 100
Flag of Jordan Jordan Jordanian dinar ?.? JOD Piastre [I] 100
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Kazakhstani tenge ? KZT Tiyn 100
Flag of Kenya Kenya Kenyan shilling Sh KES Cent 100
Flag of Kiribati Kiribati Australian dollar $ AUD Cent 100
Kiribati dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
Flag of North Korea Korea, North North Korean won ? KPW Cho(n 100
Flag of South Korea Korea, South South Korean won ? KRW Jeon 100
Flag of Kosovo Kosovo Euro € EUR Cent 100
Serbian dinar din. or ???. RSD Para 100
Flag of Kuwait Kuwait Kuwaiti dinar ?.? KWD Fils 1,000
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani som KGS Tyiyn 100
Flag of Laos Laos Lao kip ? LAK Att 100
Flag of Latvia Latvia Latvian lats Ls LVL Santi-ms 100
Flag of Lebanon Lebanon Lebanese lira ?.? LBP Piastre 100
Flag of Lesotho Lesotho Lesotho loti L LSL Sente 100
South African rand R ZAR Cent 100
Flag of Liberia Liberia Liberian dollar $ LRD Cent 100
Flag of Libya Libya Libyan dinar ?.? LYD Dirham 1,000
Flag of Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Swiss franc Fr CHF Rappen 100
Flag of Lithuania Lithuania Lithuanian litas Lt LTL Centas 100
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Macau Macau Macanese pataca P MOP Avo 100
Flag of Republic of Macedonia Macedonia, Republic of Macedonian denar ??? MKD Deni 100
Flag of Madagascar Madagascar Malagasy ariary MGA Iraimbilanja 5
Flag of Malawi Malawi Malawian kwacha MK MWK Tambala 100
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia Malaysian ringgit RM MYR Sen 100
Flag of Maldives Maldives Maldivian rufiyaa ?. MVR Laari 100
Flag of Mali Mali West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Malta Malta Maltese lira ? MTL Cent [D] 100
Flag of Marshall Islands Marshall Islands United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Mauritania Mauritania Mauritanian ouguiya UM MRO Khoums 5
Flag of Mauritius Mauritius Mauritian rupee Rs MUR Cent 100
Flag of Mexico Mexico Mexican peso $ MXN Centavo 100
Flag of Federated States of Micronesia Micronesia Micronesian dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Moldova Moldova Moldovan leu L MDL Ban 100
Flag of Monaco Monaco Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Mongolia Mongolia Mongolian tugrug ? MNT Mongo 100
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Montserrat Montserrat East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Morocco Morocco Moroccan dirham ?.?. MAD Centime 100
Flag of Mozambique Mozambique Mozambican metical MTn MZN Centavo 100
Flag of Myanmar Myanmar Myanmar kyat K MMK Pya 100
Flag of Nagorno-Karabakh Nagorno-Karabakh Armenian dram ??. AMD Luma 100
Nagorno-Karabakh dram [A] ??. None Luma 100
Flag of Namibia Namibia Namibian dollar $ NAD Cent 100
South African rand R ZAR Cent 100
Flag of Nauru Nauru Australian dollar $ AUD Cent 100
Nauruan dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
Flag of Nepal Nepal Nepalese rupee Rs NPR Paisa 100
Flag of Netherlands Netherlands Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antilles Netherlands Antillean gulden ƒ ANG Cent 100
Flag of New Caledonia New Caledonia CFP franc Fr XPF Centime 100
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand New Zealand dollar $ NZD Cent 100
Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua Nicaraguan co'rdoba C$ NIO Centavo 100
Flag of Niger Niger West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Nigeria Nigeria Nigerian naira ? NGN Kobo 100
Flag of Niue Niue New Zealand dollar $ NZD Cent 100
Niuean dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
Flag of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Turkish new lira ? TRY New kurus, 100
Flag of Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Norway Norway Norwegian krone kr NOK ?re 100
Flag of Oman Oman Omani rial ?.?. OMR Baisa 1,000
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan Pakistani rupee Rs PKR Paisa 100
Flag of Palau Palau Palauan dollar [A] $ None Cent 100
United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Palestinian territories Palestine Israeli new sheqel ? ILS New agora 100
Jordanian dinar ?.? JOD Piastre [I] 100
Flag of Panama Panama Panamanian balboa B/. PAB Cente'simo 100
United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean kina K PGK Toea 100
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay Paraguayan guarani' ? PYG Ce'ntimo 100
Flag of Peru Peru Peruvian nuevo sol S/. PEN Ce'ntimo 100
Flag of Philippines Philippines Philippine peso ? PHP Sentimo 100
Flag of Pitcairn Islands Pitcairn Islands New Zealand dollar $ NZD Cent 100
Flag of Poland Poland Polish z?oty z? PLN Grosz 100
Flag of Portugal Portugal Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Qatar Qatar Qatari riyal ?.? QAR Dirham 100
Flag of Romania Romania Romanian leu RON Ban 100
Flag of Russia Russia Russian ruble ?. RUB Kopek 100
Flag of Rwanda Rwanda Rwandan franc Fr RWF Centime 100
Flag of Saint Helena Saint Helena Saint Helenian pound £ SHP Penny 100
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines East Caribbean dollar $ XCD Cent 100
Flag of Samoa Samoa Samoan tala T WST Sene 100
Flag of San Marino San Marino Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe dobra Db STD Ce^ntimo 100
Flag of Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saudi riyal ?.? SAR Hallallah 100
Flag of Senegal Senegal West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Serbia Serbia Serbian dinar din. or ???. RSD Para 100
Flag of Seychelles Seychelles Seychellois rupee Rs SCR Cent 100
Flag of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean leone Le SLL Cent 100
Flag of Singapore Singapore Brunei dollar $ BND Sen 100
Singapore dollar $ SGD Cent 100
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia Slovak koruna Sk SKK Halier 100
Flag of Slovenia Slovenia Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Solomon Islands dollar $ SBD Cent 100
Flag of Somalia Somalia Somali shilling Sh SOS Cent 100
Flag of Somaliland Somaliland Somaliland shilling Sh None Cent 100
Flag of South Africa South Africa South African rand R ZAR Cent 100
Flag of Southern Sudan Southern Sudan Old Sudanese pound [B] £ None Qirsh 100
New Sudanese pound £ SDG Piastre 100
Flag of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands British pound £ GBP Penny 100
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands pound [A] £ None Penny 100
Flag of South Ossetia South Ossetia Georgian lari ? GEL Tetri 100
Russian ruble ?. RUB Kopek 100
Flag of Spain Spain Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Sri Lankan rupee ?? LKR Cent 100
Flag of Sudan Sudan New Sudanese pound £ SDG Piastre 100
Sudanese dinar [B] SDD Piastre 100
Flag of Suriname Suriname Surinamese dollar $ SRD Cent 100
Flag of Swaziland Swaziland Swazi lilangeni L SZL Cent 100
Flag of Sweden Sweden Swedish krona kr SEK O"re 100
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland Swiss franc Fr CHF Rappen [J] 100
Flag of Syria Syria Syrian pound £ or ?.? SYP Piastre 100
Flag of Republic of China Taiwan (Republic of China) New Taiwan dollar $ TWD Cent 100
Flag of Tajikistan Tajikistan Tajikistani somoni ?? TJS Diram 100
Flag of Tanzania Tanzania Tanzanian shilling Sh TZS Cent 100
Flag of Thailand Thailand Thai baht ? THB Satang 100
Flag of Togo Togo West African CFA franc Fr XOF Centime 100
Flag of Tonga Tonga Tongan pa?anga T$ TOP Seniti [K] 100
Flag of Transnistria Transnistria Transnistrian ruble ?. None Kopek 100
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago dollar $ TTD Cent 100
Flag of Tristan da Cunha Tristan da Cunha Saint Helenian pound £ SHP Penny 100
Tristan da Cunha pound [A] £ None Penny 100
Flag of Tunisia Tunisia Tunisian dinar ?.? TND Millime 1,000
Flag of Turkey Turkey Turkish new lira ? TRY New kurus, 100
Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan Turkmenistani manat m TMM Tennesi 100
Flag of Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Tuvalu Tuvalu Australian dollar $ AUD Cent 100
Tuvaluan dollar $ None Cent 100
Flag of Uganda Uganda Ugandan shilling Sh UGX Cent 100
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine Ukrainian hryvnia ? UAH Kopiyka 100
Flag of United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates dirham ?.? AED Fils 100
Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom British pound [C] £ GBP Penny 100
Flag of United States United States United States dollar $ USD Cent [D] 100
Flag of Uruguay Uruguay Uruguayan peso $ UYU Cente'simo 100
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Uzbekistani som UZS Tiyin 100
Flag of Vanuatu Vanuatu Vanuatu vatu Vt VUV None None
Flag of Vatican City Vatican City Euro € EUR Cent 100
Flag of Venezuela Venezuela Venezuelan boli'var Bs VEB Ce'ntimo 100
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam Vietnamese ?o^`ng ? VND Ha`o [L] 10
Flag of Wallis and Futuna Wallis and Futuna CFP franc Fr XPF Centime 100
Flag of Western Sahara Western Sahara Moroccan dirham ?.?. MAD Centime 100
Flag of Yemen Yemen Yemeni rial ? YER Fils 100
Flag of Zambia Zambia Zambian kwacha ZK ZMK Ngwee 100
Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Zimbabwean dollar $ ZWD Cent 100Afghanistan afghani Af 100 puls AFN 971 float
Albania lek L 100 qindarka (qintars) ALL 008 float
Algeria dinar DA 100 centimes DZD 012 composite
American Samoa see United States of America
Andorra uses the European Euro
Angola kwanza (new kwanza, 2001-) Kz 100 lwei AOA 024 m.float
Anguilla dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Antarctica each Antarctic base uses the currency of its home country
Antigua and Barbuda dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Argentina austral (-1991) double dashed A 100 centavos ARA --- (replaced)
Argentina peso (1991-) $ 100 centavos ARS 032 float
Armenia dram 100 luma AMD 051
Aruba guilder (a.k.a. florin or gulden) Afl. 100 cents AWG 533 US-$ (1.79)
Australia dollar A$ 100 cents AUD 036 float
Austria (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Azerbaijan manat 100 gopik AZM 031
Bahamas dollar B$ 100 cents BSD 044 US-$ (1.0)
Bahrain dinar BD 1,000 fils BHD 048 US-$ (lim.flex.)
Bangladesh taka Tk 100 paisa (poisha) BDT 050 composite
Barbados dollar Bds$ 100 cents BBD 052 US-$ (2.0)
Belarus (2000-) ruble BR BYR 112 m.float
Belgium (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Belize dollar BZ$ 100 cents BZD 084 US-$ (2.0)
Belorussia old name of Belarus
Benin franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Bermuda dollar Bd$ 100 cents BMD 060 US-$ (1.0)
Bhutan ngultrum Nu 100 chetrum BTN 064 Indian Rupee (1.0)
Bolivia boliviano Bs 100 centavos BOB 068 float
Bosnia-Herzegovina (1999-) convertible mark KM 100 fennig BAM 977 Euro (1.95583)
Botswana pula P 100 thebe BWP 072 composite
Brazil real (1994-) R$ 100 centavos BRL 986 float
British Indian Ocean Territory legal currency is GBP, but mostly USD is used
British Virgin Islands see United States
Brunei ringgit (a.k.a. Bruneian dollar) B$ 100 sen (a.k.a. 100 cents) BND 096 S$ (1.0)
Bulgaria (1999-) new lev Lv 100 stotinki BGN 975 Euro (1.95583)
Burkina Faso franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Burma now Myanmar.
Burundi franc FBu 100 centimes [*] BIF 108 composite
Cambodia new riel CR 100 sen KHR 116 m.float
Cameroon franc CFAF 100 centimes XAF 950 Euro (655.957)
Canada dollar Can$ 100 cents CAD 124 float
Canton and Enderbury Islands see Kiribati
Cape Verde Island escudo C.V.Esc. 100 centavos CVE 132 composite
Cayman Islands dollar CI$ 100 cents KYD 136 US-$ (0.85)
Central African Republic franc CFAF 100 centimes XAF 950 Euro (655.957)
Chad franc CFAF 100 centimes XAF 950 Euro (655.957)
Chile peso Ch$ 100 centavos CLP 152 indicators
China yuan renminbi Y 10 jiao = 100 fen CNY 156 m.float
Christmas Island see Australia
Cocos (Keeling) Islands see Australia
Colombia peso Col$ 100 centavos COP 170 m.float
Comoros franc CF - KMF 174 Euro (491.96775)
Congo franc CFAF 100 centimes [*] XAF 950 Euro (655.957)
Congo, Dem. Rep. (former Zaire) franc 100 centimes CDF 180 US-$ (2.50)
Congo, Dem. Rep. (2001-) franc 100 centimes CDF 976 float
Cook Islands see New Zealand
Costa Rica colon slashed C 100 centimos CRC 188 float
Co^te d'Ivoire franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Croatia kuna HRK 100 lipas HRK 191 float
Cuba (external) convertible peso Cuc$ 100 centavos CUC US-$ (0.93)
Cuba (internal) peso Cu$ 100 centavos CUP 192 CUC (24)
Cyprus pound £C 100 cents CYP 196 1.7086 EUR/CYP +/- 2.25%
Cyprus (Northern) see Turkey
Czechoslovakia split into Czech Republic and Slovak Republic on January 1, 1993
Czech Republic koruna Kc (with hacek on c) 100 haleru CZK 203 float
Denmark krone (pl. kroner) Dkr 100 ?re DKK 208 EMS-II
Djibouti franc DF 100 centimes DJF 262 US-$ (177.72)
Dominica dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Dominican Rep. peso RD$ 100 centavos DOP 214 m.float
Dronning Maud Land see Norway
East Timor see Timor-Leste
Ecuador sucre S/ 100 centavos ECS 218 m.float
Ecuador (15-Sep-2000 -) country has adopted the US Dollar
Egypt pound £E 100 piasters or 1,000 milliemes EGP 818 m.float
El Salvador colon ? 100 centavos SVC 222 float
Equatorial Guinea franc CFAF 100 centimos GQE 226 Euro (655.957)
Eritrea nakfa Nfa 100 cents ERN 232
Estonia kroon (pl. krooni) KR 100 senti EEK 233 German Mark (8.0)
Ethiopia birr Br 100 cents ETB 230 float
European Union (-1998) European Currency Unit ecu XEU 954
European Union (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978
The euro is only used in Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal; it is not used in other E.U. countries.
Faeroe Islands (F?royar) see Denmark
Falkland Islands pound £F 100 pence FKP 238 British Pound (1.0)
Fiji dollar F$ 100 cents FJD 242 composite
Finland (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
France (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
French Guiana see France
French Polynesia franc CFPF (Comptoirs Franc,ais du Pacifique Francs) 100 centimes XPF 953 Euro (119.253)
Gabon franc CFAF 100 centimes [*] XAF 950 Euro (655.957)
Gambia dalasi D 100 butut GMD 270 float
Gaza see Israel and Jordan
Georgia lari 100 tetri GEL 981 float
Germany (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Ghana new cedi ? 100 psewas GHC 288 float
Gibraltar pound £G 100 pence GIP 292 British Pound (1.0)
Great Britain see United Kingdom
Greece (2001-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Greenland see Denmark
Grenada dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Guadeloupe see France
Guam see United States
Guatemala quetzal Q 100 centavos GTQ 320 float
Guernsey see United Kingdom
Guinea-Bissau (-Apr1997) peso PG 100 centavos GWP 624 m.float
Guinea-Bissau (May1997-) franc CFAF 100 centimes [*] XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Guinea syli FG 10 francs, 1 franc = 100 centimes GNS 324 m.float
Guinea franc GNF 324
Guyana dollar G$ 100 cents GYD 328 float
Haiti gourde G 100 centimes HTG 332 float
Heard and McDonald Islands see Australia
Honduras lempira L 100 centavos HNL 340 m.float
Hong Kong dollar HK$ 100 cents HKD 344 US-$ (7.73 central parity)
Hungary forint Ft -none- HUF 348 composite
Iceland kro'na IKr 100 aurar (sg. aur) ISK 352 composite
India rupee Rs 100 paise INR 356 float
Indonesia rupiah Rp 100 sen (no longer used) IDR 360 m.float
International Monetary Fund Special Drawing Right SDR XDR 960
Iran rial Rls 10 rials = 1 toman IRR 364 US-$ (4750)
Iraq (-2003) dinar ID 1,000 fils IQD 368 US-$ (0.3109)
Iraq (2004-) new dinar ID 1,000 fils IQD m.float
Ireland (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Isle of Man see United Kingdom
Israel new shekel NIS 100 new agorot ILS 376 m.float
Italy (-1998) lira (pl. lire) Lit no subdivision in use ITL 380 euro-1936.27
Italy (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Ivory Coast see Co^te d'Ivoire
Jamaica dollar J$ 100 cents JMD 388 float
Japan yen ¥ 100 sen (not used) JPY 392 float
Jersey see United Kingdom
Johnston Island see United States
Jordan dinar JD 1,000 fils JOD 400 composite
Kampuchea see Cambodia
Kazakhstan tenge 100 tiyn KZT 398 float
Kenya shilling K Sh 100 cents KES 404 floatExchange-traded forex futures contracts were introduced in 1972 at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and are actively traded relative to most other futures contracts. Forex futures volume has grown rapidly in recent years, but only accounts for about 7% of the total foreign exchange market volume, according to The Wall Street Journal Europe (5/5/06, p. 20).

Average daily global turnover in traditional foreign exchange market transactions totalled $2.7 trillion in April 2006 according to IFSL estimates based on semi-annual London, New York, Tokyo and Singapore Foreign Exchange Committee data. Overall turnover, including non-traditional foreign exchange derivatives and products traded on exchanges, averaged around $2.9 trillion a day. This was more than ten times the size of the combined daily turnover on all the world’s equity markets. Foreign exchange trading increased by 38% between April 2005 and April 2006 and has more than doubled since 2001. This is largely due to the growing importance of foreign exchange as an asset class and an increase in fund management assets, particularly of hedge funds and pension funds. The diverse selection of execution venues such as internet trading platforms has also made it easier for retail traders to trade in the foreign exchange market.[1]

Because foreign exchange is an OTC market where brokers/dealers negotiate directly with one another, there is no central exchange or clearing house. The biggest geographic trading centre is the UK, primarily London, which according to IFSL estimates has increased its share of global turnover in traditional transactions from 31.3% in April 2004 to 32.4% in April 2006. Other large centres include the US (with a 18.2% global share), Japan (7.6%) and Singapore (5.7%) (Chart 2). Most of the remainder was accounted for by trading in Germany, Switzerland, Australia, Canada, France and Hong Kong.

The ten most active traders account for almost 73% of trading volume, according to The Wall Street Journal Europe, (2/9/06 p. 20). These large international banks continually provide the market with both bid (buy) and ask (sell) prices. The bid/ask spread is the difference between the price at which a bank or market maker will sell ("ask", or "offer") and the price at which a market-maker will buy ("bid") from a wholesale customer. This spread is minimal for actively traded pairs of currencies, usually only 0-3 pips. For example, the bid/ask quote of EUR/USD might be 1.2200/1.2203. Minimum trading size for most deals is usually $100,000.

These spreads might not apply to retail customers at banks, which will routinely mark up the difference to say 1.2100 / 1.2300 for transfers, or say 1.2000 / 1.2400 for banknotes or travelers' checks. Spot prices at market makers vary, but on EUR/USD are usually no more than 5 pips wide (i.e. 0.0005). Competition has greatly increased with pip spreads shrinking on the major pairs to as little as 1 to 1.5 pips.
Kiribati see Australia.
Korea, North won Wn 100 chon KPW 408
Korea, South won W 100 chon [*] KRW 410 float
Kuwait dinar KD 1,000 fils KWD 414 composite
Kyrgyzstan som 100 tyyn KGS 417 float
Laos new kip KN 100 at [*] LAK 418 m.float
Latvia lat Ls 100 santims LVL 428 SDR
Lebanon pound (livre) L.L. 100 piastres LBP 422 float
Lesotho loti, pl., maloti L, pl., M 100 lisente LSL 426 South African Rand (1.0)
Liberia dollar $ 100 cents LRD 430 US-$ (1.0)
Libya dinar LD 1,000 dirhams LYD 434 SDR (8.5085)
Liechtenstein see Switzerland
Lithuania litas, pl., litai 100 centu LTL 440 Euro (3.4528)
Luxembourg (-1998) franc LuxF 100 centimes LUF 442 euro-40.3399
Luxembourg (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Macao (Macau) pataca P 100 avos MOP 446 HK-$ (1.03)
Macedonia (Former Yug. Rep.) denar MKD 100 deni MKD 807 composite
Madagascar franc FMG 1 francs = 100 centimes [*] MGF 450 float
Madagascar ariayry = 5 francs MGA MGA 969 float
Malawi kwacha MK 100 tambala MWK 454 float
Malaysia ringgit RM 100 sen MYR 458 m.float
Maldives rufiyaa Rf 100 lari MVR 462 m.float
Mali franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Malta lira, pl., liri Lm 100 cents MTL 470 composite
Martinique see France
Mauritania ouguiya UM 5 khoums MRO 478 composite
Mauritius rupee Mau Rs 100 cents MUR 480 composite
Micronesia see United States
Midway Islands see United States
Mexico peso Mex$ 100 centavos MXN 484 float
Moldova leu, pl., lei MDL 498 float
Monaco see France
Mongolia tugrik (tughrik?) Tug 100 mongos MNT 496 float
Montserrat dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Morocco dirham DH 100 centimes MAD 504 composite
Mozambique metical Mt 100 centavos MZM 508 float
Myanmar kyat K 100 pyas MMK 104 US-$ (5.86of, 200-300bm)
Nauru see Australia
Namibia dollar N$ 100 cents NAD 516 South African Rand (1.0)
Nepal rupee NRs 100 paise NPR 524 composite
Netherlands Antilles guilder (a.k.a. florin or gulden) Ant.f. or NAf. 100 cents ANG 532 US-$ (1.79)
Netherlands (-1998) guilder (a.k.a. florin or gulden) f. 100 cents NLG 528 euro-2.20371
Netherlands (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
New Caledonia franc CFPF (Comptoirs Franc,ais du Pacifique Francs) 100 centimes XPF 953 Euro (119.253)
New Zealand dollar NZ$ 100 cents NZD 554 float
Nicaragua gold cordoba C$ 100 centavos NIO 558 indicators
Niger franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Nigeria naira double-dashed N 100 kobo NGN 566 US-$ ((82.0))
Niue see New Zealand
Norfolk Island see Australia
Norway krone (pl. kroner) NKr 100 ?re NOK 578 float
Oman rial RO 1,000 baizas OMR 512 US-$ (1/2.6)
Pakistan rupee Rs 100 paisa PKR 586 m.float
Palau see United States
Panama balboa B 100 centesimos PAB 590 US-$ (1.0)
Panama Canal Zone see United States
Papua New Guinea kina K 100 toeas PGK 598 composite
Paraguay guarani slashed G 100 centimos [*] PYG 600 float
Peru inti 100 centimos PEI --- (replaced)
Peru new sol S/. 100 centimos PEN 604 float
Philippines peso dashed P 100 centavos PHP 608 float
Pitcairn Island see New Zealand
Poland zloty z dashed l 100 groszy PLN 985 m.float
Portugal (-1998) escudo Esc 100 centavos PTE 620 euro-200.482
Portugal (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Puerto Rico see United States
Qatar riyal QR 100 dirhams QAR 634 US-$ (lim.flex.)
Reunion see France
Romania (-June 2005) leu (pl. lei) L 100 bani ROL 642 float
Romania (July 2005-) [new] leu (pl. lei) L 100 bani RON 946 float
Russia (-1997) ruble R 100 kopecks RUR 810 (replaced, 1000/1)
Russia (1998-) ruble R 100 kopecks RUB 810 float
Rwanda franc RF 100 centimes [*] RWF 646 SDR (201.8?)
Samoa (Western) see Western Samoa
Samoa (America) see United States
San Marino see Italy
Sao Tome & Principe dobra Db 100 centimos [*] STD 678 m.float
Saudi Arabia riyal SRls 100 halalat SAR 682 US-$ (lim.flex.)
Senegal franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Serbia dinar Din 100 paras CSD 891
Seychelles rupee SR 100 cents SCR 690 SDR (7.2345)
Sierra Leone leone Le 100 cents SLL 694 float
Singapore dollar S$ 100 cents SGD 702 m.float
Slovakia koruna Sk 100 halierov SKK 703 float
Slovenia tolar SlT 100 stotinov (stotins) SIT 705 m.float
Solomon Island dollar SI$ 100 cents SBD 090 composite
Somalia shilling So. Sh. 100 centesimi SOS 706 float
South Africa rand R 100 cents ZAR 710 float
Spain (-1998) peseta Ptas 100 centimos ESP 724 euro-166.386
Spain (1999-) euro € 100 cents EUR 978 float
Sri Lanka rupee SLRs 100 cents LKR 144 m.float
St. Helena pound £S 100 new pence SHP 654 GBP (1.0)
St. Kitts and Nevis dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
St. Lucia dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
St. Vincent and the Grenadines dollar EC$ 100 cents XCD 951 US-$ (2.7)
Sudan (-1992) pound 100 piastres SDP 736 m.float
Sudan (1992-2007) dinar 100 piastres SDP 736 m.float
Sudan (2007-) pound 100 piastres (or qirush) SDG 938 m.float
Suriname Dollar $Sur 100 cents SRD 740 m.float
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands see Norway
Swaziland lilangeni, pl., emalangeni L, pl., E 100 cents SZL 748 South African rand (1.0)
Sweden krona (pl. kronor) kr or Sk 100 o"ren SEK 752 m.float
Switzerland franc SwF 100 rappen/centimes CHF 756 float
Syria pound £S 100 piasters SYP 760 US-$ (11.225)
Tahiti see French Polynesia
Taiwan new dollar NT$ 100 cents TWD 901
Tajikistan (- 5-Nov-2000) ruble TJR 762 replaced, 1000 TJR = 1 TJS
Tajikistan (6-Nov-2000 -) somoni 100 dirams TJS 762
Tanzania shilling TSh 100 cents TZS 834 float
Thailand baht Bht or Bt 100 stang THB 764 float
Timor-Leste (May2002-) uses the US Dollar
Togo franc CFAF 100 centimes XOF 952 Euro (655.957)
Tokelau see New Zealand
Tonga pa'anga PT or T$ 100 seniti TOP 776 composite
Trinidad and Tobago dollar TT$ 100 cents TTD 780 float
Tunisia dinar TD 1,000 millimes TND 788 m.float (1.0)
Turkey (2005-) new lira YTL 100 new kurus TRY 949 float
Turkey (-2004) lira TL 100 kurus [*] TRL 792 float
Turkmenistan manat 100 tenga TMM 795 US-$ (10.0;230.0)
Turks and Caicos Islands see United States
Tuvalu see Australia.
Uganda shilling USh 100 cents UGS --- (replaced)
Uganda shilling USh 100 cents UGX 800 float
Ukraine Hryvnia 100 kopiykas UAH 980 float
United Arab Emirates dirham Dh 100 fils AED 784 US-$ (lim.flex.)
United Kingdom pound £ 100 pence GBP 826 float
United States of America dollar $ 100 cents USD 840 float
Upper Volta now Burkina Faso
Uruguay (-1975) peso Ur$ 100 cente'simos UYP --- (replaced)
Uruguay (1975-93) new peso NUr$ 100 cente'simos UYN --- (replaced)
Uruguay (1993-) peso uruguayo $U 100 cente'simos UYU 858 m.float
Uzbekistan som 100 tiyin UZS 860
Vanuatu vatu VT 100 centimes VUV 548 composite
Vatican see Italy
Venezuela bolivar Bs 100 centimos VEB 862 float
Vietnam (new) dong dashed d, or D (not used) VND 704 m.float
Virgin Islands see United States
Wake Island see United States
Wallis and Futuna Islands franc 100 centimes XPF 953 Euro (119.253)
Western Sahara see Spain, Mauritania and Morocco
Western Samoa tala WS$ 100 sene WST 882 composite
Yemen rial YRls 100 fils YER 886 float
Yugoslavia country separated into: Slovenia; Croatia; Serbia and Montenegro; Bosnia and Herzegovina; and former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia
Zai"re (-Nov 1994) zaire Z 100 makuta (replaced)
Zai"re (-1997) new zaire NZ 100 new makuta ZRN 180 float
Zai"re country renamed in 1997 to Democratic Republic of Congo
Zambia kwacha ZK 100 ngwee ZMK 894 float
Zimbabwe dollar Z$ 100 cents ZWD 716 floatTrading characteristics

There is no single unified foreign exchange market. Due to the over-the-counter (OTC) nature of currency markets, there are rather a number of interconnected marketplaces, where different currency instruments are traded. This implies that there is no such thing as a single dollar rate - but rather a number of different rates (prices), depending on what bank or market maker is trading. In practice the rates are often very close, otherwise they could be exploited by arbitrageurs.
Top 6 Most Traded Currencies Rank Currency ISO 4217 Code Symbol
1 United States dollar USD $
2 Eurozone euro EUR €
3 Japanese yen JPY ¥
4 British pound sterling GBP £
5-6 Swiss franc CHF -
5-6 Australian dollar AUD $

The main trading centers are in London, New York, Tokyo, and Singapore, but banks throughout the world participate. As the Asian trading session ends, the European session begins, then the US session, and then the Asian begin in their turns. Traders can react to news when it breaks, rather than waiting for the market to open.

There is little or no 'inside information' in the foreign exchange markets. Exchange rate fluctuations are usually caused by actual monetary flows as well as by expectations of changes in monetary flows caused by changes in GDP growth, inflation, interest rates, budget and trade deficits or surpluses, large cross-border M&A deals and other macroeconomic conditions. Major news is released publicly, often on scheduled dates, so many people have access to the same news at the same time. However, the large banks have an important advantage; they can see their customers' order flow.

Currencies are traded against one another. Each pair of currencies thus constitutes an individual product and is traditionally noted XXX/YYY, where YYY is the ISO 4217 international three-letter code of the currency into which the price of one unit of XXX is expressed. For instance, EUR/USD is the price of the euro expressed in US dollars, as in 1 euro = 1.3045 dollar. Out of convention, the first currency in the pair, the base currency, was the stronger currency at the creation of the pair. The second currency, counter currency, was the weaker currency at the creation of the pair.

The factors affecting XXX will affect both XXX/YYY and XXX/ZZZ. This causes positive currency correlation between XXX/YYY and XXX/ZZZ.

On the spot market, according to the BIS study, the most heavily traded products were:

* EUR/USD - 28 %
* USD/JPY - 18 %
* GBP/USD (also called sterling or cable) - 14 %

and the US currency was involved in 89% of transactions, followed by the euro (37%), the yen (20%) and sterling (17%). (Note that volume percentages should add up to 200% - 100% for all the sellers, and 100% for all the buyers).

Although trading in the euro has grown considerably since the currency's creation in January 1999, the foreign exchange market is thus far still largely dollar-centered. For instance, trading the euro versus a non-European currency ZZZ will usually involve two trades: EUR/USD and USD/ZZZ. The only exception to this is EUR/JPY, which is an established traded currency pair in the interbank spot market.

[edit] Factors affecting currency trading

See also: Exchange rates

Although exchange rates are affected by many factors, in the end, currency prices are a result of supply and demand forces. The world's currency markets can be viewed as a huge melting pot: in a large and ever-changing mix of current events, supply and demand factors are constantly shifting, and the price of one currency in relation to another shifts accordingly. No other market encompasses (and distills) as much of what is going on in the world at any given time as foreign exchange.

Supply and demand for any given currency, and thus its value, are not influenced by any single element, but rather by several. These elements generally fall into three categories: economic factors, political conditions and market psychology.

[edit] Economic factors

These include economic policy, disseminated by government agencies and central banks, economic conditions, generally revealed through economic reports, and other economic indicators.

Economic policy comprises government fiscal policy (budget/spending practices) and monetary policy (the means by which a government's central bank influences the supply and "cost" of money, which is reflected by the level of interest rates).

Economic conditions include:

Government budget deficits or surpluses: The market usually reacts negatively to widening government budget deficits, and positively to narrowing budget deficits. The impact is reflected in the value of a country's currency.

Balance of trade levels and trends: The trade flow between countries illustrates the demand for goods and services, which in turn indicates demand for a country's currency to conduct trade. Surpluses and deficits in trade of goods and services reflect the competitiveness of a nation's economy. For example, trade deficits may have a negative impact on a nation's currency.

Inflation levels and trends: Typically, a currency will lose value if there is a high level of inflation in the country or if inflation levels are perceived to be rising. This is because inflation erodes purchasing power, thus demand, for that particular currency.

Economic growth and health: Reports such as gross domestic product (GDP), employment levels, retail sales, capacity utilization and others, detail the levels of a country's economic growth and health. Generally, the more healthy and robust a country's economy, the better its currency will perform, and the more demand for it there will be.

[edit] Political conditions

Internal, regional, and international political conditions and events can have a profound effect on currency markets.

For instance, political upheaval and instability can have a negative impact on a nation's economy. The rise of a political faction that is perceived to be fiscally responsible can have the opposite effect. Also, events in one country in a region may spur positive or negative interest in a neighboring country and, in the process, affect its currency.

[edit] Market psychology

Perhaps the most difficult to define[citation needed] (there are no balance sheets or income statements), market psychology and trader perceptions influence the foreign exchange market in a variety of ways:

Flights to quality: Unsettling international events can lead to a "flight to quality" -with investors seeking a "safe haven". There will be a greater demand, thus a higher price, for currencies perceived as stronger over their relatively weaker counterparts.

Long-term trends: Very often, currency markets move in long, pronounced trends.[citation needed] Although currencies do not have an annual growing season like physical commodities, business cycles do make themselves felt. Cycle analysis looks at longer-term price trends that may rise from economic or political trends.

"Buy the rumor, sell the fact:" This market truism can apply to many currency situations. It is the tendency for the price of a currency to reflect the impact of a particular action before it occurs and, when the anticipated event comes to pass, react in exactly the opposite direction. This may also be referred to as a market being "oversold" or "overbought".

Economic numbers: While economic numbers can certainly reflect economic policy, some reports and numbers take on a talisman-like effect - the number itself becomes important to market psychology and may have an immediate impact on short-term market moves. "What to watch" can change over time. In recent years, for example, money supply, employment, trade balance figures and inflation numbers have all taken turns in the spotlight.

Technical trading considerations: As in other markets, the accumulated price movements in a currency pair such as EUR/USD can form patterns that may be recognized and utilized by traders for the purpose of entering and exiting the market,[citation needed] leading to short-term fluctuations in price. Many traders study price charts in order to identify such patterns.

[edit] Algorithmic trading in forex

Electronic trading is growing in the FX market, and algorithmic trading is becoming much more common. There is much confusion about the technique. According to financial consultancy Celent estimates, by 2008 up to 25% of all trades by volume will be executed using algorithm, up from about 18% in 2005.

[edit] Financial instruments

There are several types of financial instruments commonly used.

Spot: A spot transaction is a two-day delivery transaction, as opposed to the futures contracts, which are usually three months. This trade represents a “direct exchange” between two currencies, has the shortest time frame, involves cash rather than a contract; and interest is not included in the agreed-upon transaction. The data for this study come from the spot market. Spot has the largest share by volume in FX transactions among all instruments.

Forward transaction: One way to deal with the Forex risk is to engage in a forward transaction. In this transaction, money does not actually change hands until some agreed upon future date. A buyer and seller agree on an exchange rate for any date in the future, and the transaction occurs on that date, regardless of what the market rates are then. The duration of the trade can be a few days, months or years.

Futures: Foreign currency futures are forward transactions with standard contract sizes and maturity dates — for example, 500,000 British pounds for next November at an agreed rate. Futures are standardized and are usually traded on an exchange created for this purpose. The average contract length is roughly 3 months. Futures contracts are usually inclusive of any interest amounts.

Swap: The most common type of forward transaction is the currency swap. In a swap, two parties exchange currencies for a certain length of time and agree to reverse the transaction at a later date. These are not contracts and are not traded through an exchange.

Options: A foreign exchange option (commonly shortened to just FX option) is a derivative where the owner has the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date. The FX options market is the deepest, largest and most liquid market for options of any kind in the world.

[edit] Speculation

Controversy about currency speculators and their effect on currency devaluations and national economies recurs regularly. Nevertheless, many economists (e.g. Milton Friedman) have argued that speculators perform the important function of providing a market for hedgers and transferring risk from those people who don't wish to bear it, to those who do. Other economists (e.g. Joseph Stiglitz) however, may consider this argument to be based more on politics and a free market philosophy than on economics.

Large hedge funds and other well capitalized "position traders" are the main professional speculators.

Currency speculation is considered a highly suspect activity in many countries. While investment in traditional financial instruments like bonds or stocks often is considered to contribute positively to economic growth by providing capital, currency speculation does not, according to this view; it is simply gambling, that often interferes with economic policy. For example, in 1992, currency speculation forced the Central Bank of Sweden to raise interest rates for a few days to 150% per annum, and later to devalue the krona. Former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad is one well known proponent of this view. He blamed the devaluation of the Malaysian ringgit in 1997 on George Soros and other speculators.[2]

Gregory Millman reports on an opposing view, comparing speculators to "vigilantes" who simply help "enforce" international agreements and anticipate the effects of basic economic "laws" in order to profit.

In this view, countries may develop unsustainable financial bubbles or otherwise mishandle their national economies, and forex speculators only made the inevitable collapse happen sooner. A relatively quick collapse might even be preferable to continued economic mishandling. Mahathir Mohamad and other critics of speculation are viewed as trying to deflect the blame from themselves for having caused the unsustainable economic conditions.


[edit] ReferenceAn alternative definition of a world or global currency refers to a hypothetical single global currency produced and supported by a central bank which is used for all transactions around the world, regardless of the nationality of the entities (individuals, corporations, governments, or other organisations) involved in the transaction. No such official currency currently exists for a variety of reasons, political and economic.

There are many different variations of the idea, including a possibility that it would be administered by a global central bank or that it would be on the gold standard [1]. Supporters often point to the euro as an example of a supranational currency successfully implemented by a union of nations with disparate languages, cultures, and economies. Alternatively, digital gold currency can be viewed as an example of how global currency can be implemented without achieving national government consensus.

[edit] Arguments for a global currency

Some of the benefits cited by advocates of a global currency are that it would:

* Eliminate the direct and indirect transaction costs of trading from one currency to another[2].
* Eliminate the balance of payments/current account problems of all countries.
* Eliminate the risk of currency failure and currency risk.
* Eliminate the uncertainty of changes in value due to exchange-caused fluctuations in currency value and the costs of hedging to protect against such fluctuations.
* Cause an increase in the value of assets for those countries currently afflicted with significant country risk.
* Eliminate the misalignment of currencies.
* Utilize the seigniorage benefit and control of printing money for the operations of the global central bank and for public benefit.
* Eliminate the need for countries or monetary unions to maintain international reserves of other currencies.

[edit] Arguments against a single global currency

Many economists argue that a single global currency is unworkable given the vastly different national political and economic systems in existence.

[edit] Loss of national monetary policy

With one currency, you can have only one interest rate. This means that each of the present currency areas cannot choose the interest rate that suits their economy best. If for example at one point USA has a boom and EU a depression, this period would be eased if they both could choose the interest rate that best fitted their needs. In this case that would be a relatively high interest rate in USA, and a relatively low in EU.

[edit] Political difficulties

In the present world, nations are not yet able to work together closely enough to be able to produce and support a common currency. There has to be a high level of trust between different countries before a true world currency could be created. Critics argue that a world currency would undermine national sovereignty.

A currency needs an interest rate, while one of the largest religions in the world, Islam, is against the idea of interest rate. This might prove to be an unsolvable problem for a world currency, if religious views concerning interest do not moderate. It is not, however, necessary for a Muslim user of such a banking system to either receive or pay interest, in much the same way that Muslims avoid the problem under the current system in the modern non-Islamic world (for example, through using Islamic finance). Although the central bank must set an interest rate, there is no compulsion for individual banks to do so, it is simply accepted practice in the West.

[edit] Economical difficulties

Some economists argue that a single world currency is unnecessary, because the U.S. dollar already provides many of the benefits of a world currency while avoiding some of the costs [3].

If the world does not form an optimum currency area, then it would be economically inefficient for the world to share one currency.

A world currency would not allow for adjustments by national central banks to accommodate local economic problems. A single currency can only have a single interest rate. However, different regions in the world, with varying rates of economic growth, may require different interest rates.

As an example, consider a hypothetical Country A that is a petroleum exporter and a hypothetical Country B that is an oil importer. If the price of oil goes up, this is an advantage for Country A, and a disadvantage for Country B. If the oil price goes up, this stimulates the economy of Country A; to avoid "overheating" the economy, Country A's central bank would support increasing the interest rate of Country A. At the same time, Country B's economy is damaged by the increased price of oil, and Country B's central bank would seek to lower the interest rate in order to stimulate the economy. However, Country A and Country B would be unable to do this if they shared the same currency.

[edit] See also * Abasi - Afghanistan
* Abazi - Georgia
* Ackey - Gold Coast
* Afghani - Afghanistan
* Aks,a - Tuva
* Angolar - Angola
* Argentino - Argentina
* Ariary - Madagascar
* Austral - Argentina
* Auksinas - Lithuania

[edit] B

* Baht (???) - Thailand
* Balboa - Panama (U.S. dollar used for paper money)
* Birr - Ethiopia
* Boli'var - Venezuela
* Boliviano - Bolivia
* Budju - Algeria

[edit] C

* Cash (?) - China
* Cedi - Ghana
* Chervonets - Russia
* Colo'n
o Costa Rican colo'n - Costa Rica
o El Salvadoran colo'n - El Salvador
* Continental currency - United States of America
* Conventionsthaler - Holy Roman Empire
* Co'rdoba - Nicaragua
* Cruzado - Brazil
* Cruzeiro
o Cruzeiro - Brazil
o Cruzeiro Real - Brazil
* Cupon - Moldova
* Customs gold unit - Republic of China

[edit] D

* Dalasi - The Gambia
* Daler - Danish West Indies
* Denar - Macedonia
* Denier - France
* Dinar (?????)
o Algerian dinar - Algeria
o Bahraini dinar - Bahrain
o Bosnia and Herzegovina dinar - Bosnia and Herzegovina
o Croatian dinar - Croatia
o Iraqi dinar - Iraq
o Jordanian dinar - Jordan, Palestine
o Kelantanese dinar - Kelantan
o Krajina dinar - Krajina
o Kuwaiti dinar - Kuwait
o Libyan dinar - Libya
o Republika Srpska dinar - Republika Srpska
o Serbian dinar - Serbia
o South Yemeni dinar - South Yemen
o Sudanese dinar - Sudan
o Swiss dinar - Iraq
o Tunisian dinar - Tunisia
o Yugoslav dinar - Yugoslavia
* Diner - Andorra (commemorative only)
* Dinero - Spain
* Dinheiro - Portugal
* Dirham (????)
o Moroccan dirham - Morocco
o United Arab Emirates dirham - United Arab Emirates
* Dobra - Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe
* Dollar
o Australian dollar - Australia, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island, Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu
o Bahamian dollar - Bahamas
o Barbadian dollar - Barbados
o Belize dollar - Belize
o Bermuda dollar - Bermuda
o British North Bornean dollar - British North Borneo
o British West Indian dollar - British West Indies
o Bruneian dollar - Brunei
o Canadian dollar - Canada
o Cayman Islands dollar - Cayman Islands
o Continental dollar - Colonial America
o Cook Islands dollar - Cook Islands
o Dominican dollar - Dominica
o East Caribbean dollar - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
o Fijian dollar - Fiji
o Grenadan dollar - Grenada
o Guyanese dollar - Guyana
o Hawaiian dollar - Hawaii
o Hong Kong dollar - Hong Kong
o International dollar - hypothetical currency pegged 1:1 to the United States dollar
o Jamaican dollar - Jamaica
o Kiautschou dollar - Qingdao
o Kiribati dollar - Kiribati
o Liberian dollar - Liberia
o Malaya and British Borneo dollar - Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak, British North Borneo and Brunei
o Malayan dollar - Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore
o Mauritian dollar - Mauritius
o Mongolian dollar - Mongolia
o Namibian dollar - Namibia
o Nevisian dollar - Nevis
o New Brunswick dollar - New Brunswick
o New Taiwan dollar - Taiwan
o New Zealand dollar - New Zealand, Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, Pitcairn Islands.
o Newfoundland dollar - Newfoundland
o Nova Scotian dollar - Nova Scotia
o Old Taiwan dollar - Taiwan
o Penang dollar - Penang
o Puerto Rican dollar - Puerto Rico
o Rhodesian dollar - Rhodesia
o Saint Kitts dollar - Saint Kitts
o Saint Vincent dollar - Saint Vincent
o Sarawak dollar - Sarawak
o Sierra Leonean dollar - Sierra Leone
o Singapore dollar - Singapore
o Solomon Islands dollar - Solomon Islands
o Straits dollar - Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore
o Sumatran dollar - Sumatra
o Surinamese dollar - Suriname
o Taiwan dollar - Taiwan
o Texan dollar - Republic of Texas
o Trinidad and Tobago dollar - Trinidad and Tobago
o Tuvaluan dollar - Tuvalu (not an independent currency, equivalent to Australian dollar)
o United States dollar - United States of America; also used officially in several other countries: British Indian Ocean Territory (accepted), East Timor (has own centavo coins), Ecuador (has own centavo coins), El Salvador, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and Panama (has own balboa currency)
o Zimbabwean dollar - Zimbabwe
* ?ong
o ?ong - South Vietnam
o ?ong - Vietnam
* Drachma (Äñá÷ìÞ) - Greece
* Dram (????) - Armenia

[edit] E

* Ekwele (Ekuele) - Equatorial Guinea
* Escudo
o Angolan escudo - Angola
o Cape Verdean escudo - Cape Verde
o Chilean escudo - Chile
o Mozambican escudo - Mozambique
o Portuguese escudo - Portugal
o Portuguese Guinean escudo - Guinea Bissau
o Portuguese Indian escudo - Portuguese India
o Portuguese Timorese escudo - East Timor
o Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe escudo - Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe
o Spanish escudo - Spain
* Euro (Eõñþ, ????) - Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain
o Countries that have made legal agreements with the EU to use the euro: Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City
o Territories that unilaterally use the euro: Andorra, Montenegro, Kosovo
o Currencies pegged to the euro: Cape Verdean escudo, CFA franc, CFP franc, Comorian franc, Bulgarian lev, Estonian kroon, Lithuanian litas, Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

[edit] F

* Fanam - Madras Presidency
* Fiorino - Tuscany
* Florin
o Aruban florin - Aruba
o Austrian florin - Austria
o East African florin - Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda
o Lombardy-Venetia florin - Lombardy-Venetia
* Forint - Hungary
* Franc
o Algerian franc - Algeria
o Belgian franc - Belgium
o Burundian franc - Burundi
o Cambodian franc - Cambodia
o Central African CFA franc - Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
o CFP franc - New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna
o Comorian franc - Comoros
o Congolese franc - Democratic Republic of Congo (replaced in 1967, re-established in 1998)
o Djiboutian franc - Djibouti
o French franc - France
o French Camerounian franc - French Cameroun
o Guinean franc - Guinea (replaced in 1971, re-established in 1985)
o Katangan franc - Katanga
o Luxembourgish franc - Luxembourg
o Malagasy franc - Madagascar
o Malian franc - Mali
o Monegasque franc - Monaco
o Moroccan franc - Morocco
o New Hebrides franc - New Hebrides
o Re'union franc - Re'union
o Rwanda and Burundi franc - Rwanda and Burundi
o Rwandan franc - Rwanda
o Saar franc - Saar
o Swiss franc - Switzerland, Liechtenstein.
o Tunisian franc - Tunisia
o US occupation franc - France (issued and used by Allied soldiers, never backed by any government)
o West African CFA franc - Benin, Burkina Faso, Co^te d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo
* Franco
o Dominican franco - Dominican Republic
o Luccan franco - Lucca
* Frank
o Liechtenstein frank - Liechtenstein
o Westphalian frank - Westphalia

[edit] G

* Gazeta (Ãáæåôá) - Ionian Islands
* Gourde - Haiti
* Grosz - Krako'w
* Guarani' - Paraguay
* Guilder - British Guiana
* Gulden
o Austro-Hungarian gulden - Austria-Hungary
o Baden Gulden - Baden
o Bavarian Gulden - Bavaria
o Danzig Gulden - Danzig
o Dutch gulden - Netherlands
o Netherlands Antillean gulden - Netherlands Antilles
o Netherlands Indian gulden - Netherlands Indies
o South German Gulden - Baden, Bavaria, Frankfurt, Hohenzollern, Wu"rttemberg and other states
o Surinamese gulden - Suriname
o West New Guinean gulden - West New Guinea
o Wu"rttemberg Gulden - Wu"rttemberg

[edit] H

* Hryvnia (??????) - Ukraine
* Hwan (? or ?) - South Korea

[edit] I

* Inca - Peru
* Inti - Peru

[edit] K

* Karbovanets
o Ukrainian karbovanets - Ukraine
* Keping
o Kelantan keping - Kelantan
o Trengganu keping - Trengganu
* Kina - Papua New Guinea
* Kip - Laos
* Kori - Kutch
* Korona - Hungary
* Koruna
o Bohemian and Moravian koruna - Bohemia and Moravia
o Czech koruna - Czech Republic
o Czechoslovak koruna - Czechoslovakia
o Slovak koruna - Slovakia
* Kro'na
o Faroese kro'na - Faroe Islands (not an independent currency, equivalent to Danish krone)
o Icelandic kro'na - Iceland
* Krona - Sweden
* Krone
o Austro-Hungarian krone - Austria
o Danish krone - Denmark, Greenland
o Liechtenstein krone - Liechtenstein
o Norwegian krone - Norway
o Yugoslav krone - Yugoslavia
* Kronenthaler
o Austrian Netherlands kronenthaler - Belgium
o Holy Roman Empire Kronenthaler - Holy Roman Empire
* Kroon - Estonia
* Kuna - Croatia
* Kwacha
o Malawian kwacha - Malawi
o Zambian kwacha - Zambia
* Kwanza - Angola
* Kyat (Image:Kyat.png) - Myanmar

[edit] L

* Laari - Maldives
* Lari (????) - Georgia
* Lats - Latvia
* Lek - Albania
* Lempira - Honduras
* Leone - Sierra Leone
* Leu
o Moldovan leu - Moldova
o Romanian leu - Romania
* Lev (???) - Bulgaria
* Libra - Peru
* Lilangeni - Swaziland
* Lira
o Israeli lira (????, pound) - Israel
o Italian lira - Italy
o Italian East African lira - Italian East Africa
o Italian Somaliland lira - Italian Somaliland
o Lebanese lira (????) - Lebanon
o Luccan lira - Lucca
o Maltese lira - Malta
o Neapolitan lira - Naples (Kingdom of Joachim Murat)
o Papal States lira - Papal States
o Parman lira - Parma
o Sammarinese lira - San Marino
o Sardinian lira - Sardinia
o Tripolitanian lira (????) - Tripolitania
o Turkish lira - Turkey
o Turkish new lira - Turkey
o Tuscan lira - Tuscany
o Vatican lira - Vatican City
o Venetian lira - Venice
* Litas - Lithuania
* Livre
o French colonial livre - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, Mauritius and Reunion
o French livre - France
o French livre parisis - France
o French livre tournois - France
o Haitian livre - Haiti
o New France livre - New France
o Luxembourgish livre - Luxembourg
o Saint Lucia livre - Saint Lucia
* Loti - Lesotho

[edit] M

* Manat
o Azerbaijani manat - Azerbaijan
o Turkmenistani manat - Turkmenistan
* Maneti - Georgia
* Maravedi' - Spain
* Mark
o Danzig Mark - Danzig
o Estonian mark - Estonia
o German Mark - Germany
o German Goldmark - Germany
o German Papiermark - Germany
o German Reichsmark - Germany
o German Rentenmark - Germany
o German South West African Mark - German South West Africa
o East German Mark - East Germany
o Hamburg Mark - Hamburg
o Namibian mark - Namibian
o New Guinean Mark - New Guinea
o Saar Mark - Saar
* Marka
o Bosnian and Herzegovinian konvertibilna marka (????????????? ?????) - Bosnia and Herzegovina
o Polish marka - Poland
* Markka - Finland
* Metica - Mozambique (proposed)
* Metical - Mozambique
* Mohar - Nepal
* Mon - Japan
* Mun - Korea

[edit] N

* Nahar - Chechnia (planned and printed but never used)
* Naira - Nigeria
* Nakfa - Eritrea
* Ngultrum (????????) - Bhutan
* Nuevo Sol - Peru

[edit] O

* Obol - Ionian Islands
* Ostmark
o Ostmark - Lithuania
o East German mark - East Germany (known as the Ostmark, or East mark)
* Ostruble - Lithuania
* Ouguiya (?????) - Mauritania

[edit] P

* Pa'anga - Tonga
* Pataca
o Macanese pataca (???) - Macau
o Maltese pataca - Malta
o Portuguese Timorese pataca - Portuguese Timor
* Pengo" - Hungary
* Perper
o Serbian perper - Serbia
o Montenegrin perper - Montenegro
* Perun - Montenegro (proposed)
* Peseta
o Catalan peseta - Catalunya
o Equatorial Guinean peseta - Equatorial Guinea
o Peruvian peseta - Peru
o Spanish peseta - Spain
* Peso
o Argentine peso - Argentina
o Argentine peso argentino - Argentina
o Argentine peso ley - Argentina
o Argentine peso moneda corriente - Argentina
o Argentine peso moneda nacional - Argentina
o Bolivian peso - Bolivia
o Chilean peso - Chile
o Colombian peso - Colombia
o Costa Rican peso - Costa Rica
o Cuban convertible peso - Cuba
o Cuban peso - Cuba
o Dominican peso - Dominican Republic
o Ecuadorian peso - Ecuador
o Guatemalan peso - Guatemala
o Guinea Bissau peso - Guinea Bissau
o Honduran peso - Honduras
o Japanese government-issued Philippine fiat peso - Philippines
o Mexican nuevo peso - Mexico
o Mexican peso - Mexico
o Nicaraguan peso - Nicaragua
o Paraguayan peso - Paraguay
o Puerto Rican peso - Puerto Rico
o Salvadoran peso - El Salvador
o Uruguayan peso - Uruguay
o Venezuelan peso - Venezuela
* Phoenix - Greece
* Piastra
o Neapolitan piastra - Mainland part of Two Sicilies
o Sicilian piastra - Sicily
o Two Sicilies piastra - Two Sicilies
* Piastre
o Piastre - Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam
o Ottoman Turkish piastre - Ottoman Empire
* Piso - Philippines
* Pitis - Brunei
* Pound
o Alderney pound - Alderney (commemorative, same as British pound
o Anglo-Saxon pound - Anglo-Saxon England
o Australian pound - Australia
o Bahamian pound - Bahamas
o Bermudan pound - Bermuda
o Biafran pound - Biafra
o British pound (sterling) - United Kingdom, British Indian Ocean Territory (accepted)
o Canadian pound - Canada
o Connecticut pound - Connecticut
o Cypriot pound - Cyprus, Akrotiri and Dhekelia
o Delaware pound - Delaware
o Egyptian pound - Egypt
o Falkland pound - Falkland Islands
o Fijian pound - Fiji
o Gambian pound - Gambia
o Georgia pound - Georgia
o Ghanaian pound - Ghana
o Gibraltar pound - Gibraltar
o Guernsey pound - Guernsey
o Jamaican pound - Jamaica
o Jersey pound - Jersey
o Libyan pound - Libya
o Malawian pound - Malaw^i
o Maltese pound - Malta
o Manx pound - Isle of Man
o Maryland pound - Maryland
o Massachusetts pound - Massachusetts
o New Guinean pound - New Guinea
o New Hampshire pound - New Hampshire
o New Jersey pound - New Jersey
o New York pound - New York
o New Zealand pound - New Zealand
o Nigerian pound - Nigeria
o North Carolina pound - North Carolina
o Oceanian pound - Kiribati, Nauru, New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu
o Palestinian pound - Palestine
o Pennsylvania pound - Pennsylvania
o Rhode Island pound - Rhode Island
o Rhodesia and Nyasaland pound - Rhodesia and Nyasaland
o Rhodesian pound - Rhodesia
o Saint Helena pound - Saint Helena
o Solomon Islands pound - Solomon Islands
o South African pound - South Africa
o South Carolina pound - South Carolina
o Southern Rhodesian pound - Southern Rhodesia
o Sudanese pound - Sudan
o (New) Sudanese pound - Southern Sudan
o Syrian pound - Syria
o Tongan pound - Tonga
o Virginia pound - Virginia
o West African pound - Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Nigeria and Sierra Leone
o West Indian pound - British West Indies
o Western Samoan pound - Samoa
o Zambian pound - Zambia
* Pula - Botswana
* Punt - Ireland

[edit] Q

* Qiran - Iran
* Quetzal - Guatemala

[edit] R

* Rai stones - Yap
* Rand - South Africa
* Real
o Angolan real - Angola
o Argentine real - Argentina
o Azorean real - Azores
o Brazilian real - Brazil
o Cape Verde real - Cape Verde
o Central American Republic real - Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua
o Colombian real - Colombia
o Ecuadorian real - Ecuador
o Gibraltar real - Gibraltar
o Honduran real - Honduras
o Mexican real - Mexican
o Mozambican real - Mozambique
o Paraguayan real - Paraguay
o Peruvian real - Peru
o Philippine real - Philippines
o Portuguese Guinea real - Guinea Bissau
o Portuguese real - Portugal (plural re'is)
o Santo Domingo real - Santo Domingo
o Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe real - Sa~o Tome' and Pri'ncipe
o Spanish colonial real - Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela
o Spanish real - Spain
* Reichsmark - Germany
* Reichsthaler - Germany
* Renminbi (??? or ???) - People's Republic of China
* Rentenmark - Germany
* Rial (????)
o Iranian rial - Iran
o Moroccan rial - Morocco
o North Yemeni rial - North Yemen
o Omani rial - Oman
o Tunisian rial - Tunisia
o Yemeni rial - Yemen
* Riel - Cambodia
* Rigsdaler
o Danish West Indies rigsdaler - Danish West Indies
o Danish rigsdaler - Denmark
o Norwegian rigsdaler - Norway
* Riksdaler - Sweden
* Rijksdaalder - Netherlands
* Ringgit - Malaysia
* Rixdollar - Sri Lanka
* Riyal (????)
o Hejaz riyal - Hejaz
o Qatari riyal - Qatar
o Saudi riyal - Saudi Arabia
* Roepiah - Netherlands Indies
* Ruble (?????)
o Armenian ruble - Armenia
o Azerbaijani ruble - Azerbaijan
o Belarusian ruble - Belarus
o Russian ruble - Russia
o Tajikistani ruble - Tajikistan
o Transcaucasian ruble - Transcaucasia
o Transnistrian ruble - Transnistria
* Rublis - Latvia
* Rufiyah (?????? ?????) - Maldives
* Rupee (?????)
o Afghan rupee - Afghanistan
o Bhutanese rupee - Bhutan
o Burmese rupee - Burma
o Danish Indian rupee - Danish India
o East African rupee - Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda
o French Indian rupee - French India
o Gulf rupee - Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and UAE
o Hyderabad rupee - Hyderabad
o Indian rupee - India
o Javan rupee - Java
o Mauritian rupee - Mauritius
o Nepalese rupee - Nepal
o Pakistani rupee - Pakistan
o Portuguese Indian rupia - Portuguese India
o Seychellois rupee - Seychelles
o Sri Lankan rupee (?????) - Sri Lanka
o Travancore rupee - Travancore
o Zanzibari rupee - Zanzibar
* Rupiah
o Indonesian rupiah - Indonesia
o Italian Somaliland rupia - Italian Somaliland
o Riau rupiah - Riau
o West New Guinea rupiah - West New Guinea
* Rupie - Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania
* Ryo- - Japan

[edit] S

* Schilling - Austria
* Scudo
o Bolivian scudo - Bolivia
o Lombardy-Venetia scudo - Lombardy-Venetia
o Maltese scudo - Malta
o Milanese scudo - Milan
o Papal States scudo - Papal States
* Shah (???) - Ukraine
* Sheqel
o New Sheqel (??? ???) - Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank
o Sheqel (???) - Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank
* Shilling
o East African shilling - Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda
o Kenyan shilling - Kenya
o Somali shilling - Somalia
o Somaliland shilling - Somaliland
o Tanzanian shilling - Tanzania
o Ugandan shilling - Uganda
* Sol - Peru
* Som
o Kyrgyzstani som (???) - Kyrgyzstan
o Uzbekistani som (???) - Uzbekistan
* Somalo - Italian Somaliland
* Somoni (??????) - Tajikistan
* Speciedaler - Norway
* Speciethaler - Schleswig-Holstein
* Srang - Tibet
* Sucre - Ecuador
* Syli - Guinea

[edit] T

* Tael (?, lia(ng) - China
* Taka (????) - Bangladesh
* Tala - Samoa
* Tallero - Eritrea
* Talonas - Lithuania
* Tangka - Tibet
* Tenga
o Bukharan tenga - Bukhara
o Kokand tenga - Kokand
o Khwarazmi tenga - Khwarazm
* Tenge (?????) - Kazakhstan
* Thaler - Germany, Austria, Hungary
o Bremen Thaler - Bremen
o Danzig Thaler - Danzig
o Hannovarian Thaler - Hannover
o Hesse-Kassel Thaler - Hesse-Kassel
o Mecklenburg Thaler - Mecklenburg
o Prussian Thaler - Prussia
o Saxon Thaler - Mecklenburg
o Westphalian Thaler - Westphalia
* Tical - Cambodia
* Tolar - Slovenia
* Toman (?????) - Iran
* Trade dollar
o British trade dollar - Great Britain
o Japanese trade dollar - Japan
o United States trade dollar - United States of America
* Tugrug (T?????) - Mongolia

[edit] V

* Vatu - Vanuatu
* Venezolano - Venezuela
* Vereinsthaler
o Hannovarian vereinsthaler - Hannover
o Hesse-Kassel vereinsthaler - Hesse-Kassel
o Mecklenburg vereinsthaler - Mecklenburg
o Prussian vereinsthaler - Prussia
o Saxon vereinsthaler - Mecklenburg

[edit] W

* Wen (?) - China
* Won (?,?)
o North Korean won - North Korea
o South Korean won - South Korea

[edit] Y

* Yang (?) - Korea
* Yen (?)
o Korean yen - Korea
o Japanese military yen - Hong Kong
o Yen - Japan
o Taiwan yen - Taiwan
* Yuan
o Chinese yuan (?, ? or ?) - China
o Chinese renminbi yuan (??? or ???) - People's Republic of China
o Manchukuo yuan (?) - Manchukuo
o Taiwanese old yuan (Old Taiwan dollar) - Republic of China (Taiwan)
o Taiwanese new yuan (New Taiwan dollar) - Republic of China (Taiwan)

[edit] Z

* Zai"re - Zai"re
* Z?oty
o Krako'w z?oty - Krako'w
o Polish z?oty - Poland